Sunday, 15 July 2012

The Function Of A Skeleton


Cranium is a flat bone which is located in the head. The cranium is part of the skull that holds and protects the brain.

Mandible forms the lower part of your jaw and holds your lower teeth in place. The mandible is an irregular bone. The mandible helps you eat.

Clavicle is a long bone which makes up part of your shoulder gridle. The clavicle supports the scapula and it also helps the arm to have maximum movement.

Scapula is a flat bone and is also known as the shoulder blade it connects the humerus with the clavicle. The scapula forms the posterior part of the shoulder gridle.

Sternum is a flat bone in the shape of a capital T located in the centre of the chest. it connects the rib bones forming the anterior section of the rib cage. It helps protect the heart, lungs and major blood vessels. 

Ribs are flat bones located in the trunk of your body. The ribs protect the heart and lungs and other vital organs. The human body has 24 ribs (12 pairs)  

Humerus is a long bone that produces red blood cells. It is located in the arm and runs from the shoulder to the elbow. The humerus connects the scapula and lower arm.

Illium is the upper largest bone of the pelvis. It attaches the abdominals muscles

Sacrum is a large irregular bone at the base of the spine wedged between the two hip bones; it is shaped like a triangle. The sacrum fusers the five vertebras together.     

Radius is a long bone so it producers red blood cells it is located in the forearm. It extends from the lateral side of the elbow to the thumb side of the wrist. It is also parallel to the ulna. The radius is prism shaped and curved longitudinally. 

Ulna is a long bone located in the forearm and is parallel to the radius. The ulna is also attached to the elbow.

Pubis is an irregular bone located in the pelvis. It is covered by a layer of fat.  
Carpals are short bones located in the hand and attached to the metacarpals. It helps with the movement of the hand.

Metacarpals are bones in the hand that run from the base of the wrist were they are attached to the carpals to the base of each finger were they are attached to the phalanges. The head of the metacarpals form knuckles.  

Phalanges are short bones located in the hand. Fingers 2 - 4 are made up of three phalanges. The thumb has two phalanges.

Vertebral Column is a irregular bone because it does not fit in any other category. The vertebral column has 5 different sections. It helps with the movement of the body and supports your body and protects your spine.  

Ischium forms the lower and back of the hip bone. It is located below the illium and behind the pubis.

Femur is a long bone in the upper thigh which is attached to the hip griddle and helps you move. It also produces red blood cells.    
Patella is the largest seasmoid bone in are body. The patella is also known as the knee cap and is a thick circular-triangular bone. It articulates with the femur and covers and protects the anterior articular surface of the knee joint

Tibia is a long bone located in the lower leg. It is larger and stronger of the two bones in the leg below the knee. The tibia connects the knee with ankle bone. The tibia is the second largest bone in the body, it helps with the movement of the leg and produces blood cells.

Fibula is also known as the calf bone and is a long bone located in the leg and the lateral side of the tibia which it is connected to above and below. It is smaller than the two bones and is the most slender of all long bones.   

Tarsals are short bones located in the feet, there are seven tarsal’s bones in humans. They are found between the lower end of tibia and fibula of the lower leg and the metatarsus.

Metatarsals are a group of five long bones in the foot. The metatarsal bones are not named so they are numbered from the side of big toe. The metatarsals are analogous to the metacarpal bones of the hand.

Functions of the skeletal system

A function of a skeleton is protection. The bones of the body protect major organs. Internal organs are protected by adipose tissue and also the hard structure of bones. Some examples of bones that protect vital organs are:

·         The cranium protects the brain
·         The vertebrae protects the spinal cord
·         The rib cage protects hearts and lungs
·         The patella and the ulna protect the knee and elbow
·         The carpals an tarsal’s protect the wrists and ankle                                                        

Our body is able to move because of the co-operation between the muscles and the bones. The muscles are attached to the bones of the skeleton which creating a lever and joint system allowing the body to move. The joints between bones permit movement, some allowing a wider range of movement then other e.g. ball and socket joint  

Blood Cell Production
Bones produce blood cells and this takes place in the marrow of the bone, the marrow is found in the main shaft of all long bones, so bones like clavicle and ulna will produce blood cells. The bones produce red blood cells so they can carry oxygen and nutrients to the body tissues. The bones produce white blood cells help fight disease and infection.

The skeleton provides the framework for our body and gives us or shape. Without our skeleton we wouldn't be able to stand up straight.

This tissue structure does not work on its own, they are attached to a matrix of the bones which offers support to major organs. A network of tissues holds the major organs of the body in place. Without the ribs, costal cartilages, and the intercostals muscles the lungs would collapse

Bone matrix can store calcium and is involved in calcium metabolism, and bone marrow can store iron in ferritin and is involved in iron metabolism.

Bone growth
The bones in our body are constantly growing and repairing themselves. Bones are broken down by osteoclasts and rebuilt by osteoblasts. Officiation is the process of laying down new bone by cells the osteoblasts. The epiphyseal plate is a hyaline cartilage plate at each end of a long bone. The plate is found in children and adolescents in adults, who have stopped growing, the plate is replaced an epiphyseal line.   

Effect on Exercise
The immediate effect on bones during exercise is not well documented. The recent research suggests that calcium builds up and blood generation increases. The long term affects on bones shows an increase in the density and overall growth

The Axial Skeleton and The Appendicular Skeleton

The Axial Skeleton
The axial skeleton consists of 80 bones. It includes the cranium, ribs, sternum and vertebral column. The function of the axial skeleton is to protect major organs in the body like the brain, heart, lungs and spinal cord. It is also responsible for the upright position of the human body. The axial skeleton also allows limbs to attach to something.

The Appendicular Skeleton
The appendicular skeleton consists of 126 bones. It includes the shoulder girdle, hip girdle, arms, hands, legs and feet. The function of the appendicular skeleton is to work in conjunction with the muscular system to provide movement. It also protects major organs like the digestion system.    

Classification of bones

Long bones
Long bones are longer then they are wide and are key for are movement. They also work as leavers and produce red blood cells example of long bones are fumer, ulna and radius.

Short bones
Short bones are short and cubed shaped. Short bones are defined as being approximately as wide as they are long and have a primary function of providing support and stability with little movement. Examples of short bones are ankles and wrists.

Flat bones
Flat bones have a broad smooth surface and they protect organs and attach muscles, they protect the internal organs. Examples of flat bones are cranium, illium and sternum.

Irregular bones
Irregular bones don’t fit the other four categories and are an irregular shape. The purposes of irregular bones are protection of the nervous tissue such as the vertebrae protect the spinal cord.

Sesamoid bones
Sesamoid bones are small bones held within tendons and are found in locations where a tendon passes over a joint, such as the hand, knee, and foot. Sesamoid bones protect the tendons.

Differences and similarities of classification of bones
The differences between all these bones are that they all do different jobs. A similarity is that they are all in the body 

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